1. Classification according to the form of guardrail construction
(1) Semi-rigid guardrail. Semi-rigid guardrail is a continuous beam-column structure. It absorbs collision energy by friction between vehicle and guardrail, friction between vehicle and ground, and elastic and plastic deformation of vehicle, soil foundation and guardrail itself (mainly deformation of guardrail system), prolongs the action time of collision process to reduce vehicle speed, and forces out-of-control vehicles to change their driving direction and return to normal driving direction, so as to ensure the safety of passengers. Reduce vehicle damage altogether. Semi-rigid guardrails are mainly located in sections where occupants need to be protected.
(2) Rigid guardrail. Rigid guardrail is a basic non-deformable guardrail structure. For rigid guardrail, it absorbs collision energy by changing wheel rotation angle, body displacement, deformation and friction between vehicle and guardrail, vehicle and ground. In the process of collision, the degree of vehicle deformation depends on its stiffness, collision energy and collision action time. When the collision angle of the vehicle is large, it often causes serious consequences. Rigid guardrails are mainly located in the sections where the vehicles must be strictly prevented from crossing the road so as to avoid secondary accidents.
(3) Flexible guardrail. Flexible fence is a kind of tough fence structure with large cushioning capacity. Cable guardrail is the main representative form of flexible guardrail. It is a structure consisting of several cables with initial tension fixed on the column. It completely relies on the tension stress of the cables to resist the collision of vehicles and absorb energy.
2. Classification by location of guardrail
(1) roadside guardrails. Roadside guardrails refer to the guardrails set on the shoulders (or slopes) of highways to prevent out-of-control vehicles from crossing the road. Collision with roadside obstacles and other facilities.
(2) Central partition with guardrail. Central partition barrier is a kind of barrier which is set in the middle of the road. Its purpose is to prevent out-of-control vehicles from entering the opposite lane through the middle zone and to protect the structures and other facilities.
(3) Bridge guardrail. Bridge guardrail refers to the guardrail installed on the bridge to prevent out-of-control vehicles from crossing the bridge and protect pedestrians and non-motor vehicles.
(4) transitional barrier. Transition section guardrail refers to the structural section which smoothly connects and carries out rigidity transition between different sections of guardrail.
(5) End guardrail. End guardrail refers to the special structure set at the beginning or end of the guardrail.
(6) Anti-collision cushion. Anti-collision cushion is used to stop or change the driving direction of vehicles in front and side collisions through energy absorption system. It is usually set at the exit triangle of interchange, unprotected piers, structural support pillars and guardrail ends.
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