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交通护栏有哪些类型和分类_双顿护栏

  • 来源: 发布时间:2019-03-22 209 次浏览

1.按护栏构造形式分类

(1)半刚性护栏。半刚性护栏是一种连续的梁柱结构。它是通过车辆与护栏间的摩擦、车辆与地面间的摩擦及车辆、土基和护栏本身产生一定量的弹、塑性变形(以护栏系统的变形为主)来吸收碰撞能量,延长碰撞过程的作用时间来降低车辆速度,并迫使失控车辆改变行驶方向,恢复到正常的行驶方向,从而确保乘员安全和减少车辆损坏。半刚性护栏主要设置在需要着重保护乘员安全的路段。

(2)刚性护栏。刚性护栏是一种基本不变形的护栏结构。对刚性护栏来说,是通过车轮转动角的改变,车体变位、变形和车辆与护栏、车辆与地面的摩擦来吸收碰撞能量。在碰撞过程中,车辆变形程度取决于其自身的刚度、碰撞能量和碰撞作用时间。当车辆的碰撞角度较大时,往往造成比较严重的后果。刚性护栏主要设置在需严格阻止车辆越出路外,以免引起二次事故的路段。

(3)柔性护栏。柔性护栏是一种具有较大缓冲能力的韧性护栏结构。缆索护栏是柔性护栏的主要代表形式,它是一种以数根施加初张力的缆索固定于立柱上而组成的结构,完全依靠缆索的拉应力来抵抗车辆的碰撞,吸收能量。

2.按护栏设置位置分类

(1)路侧护栏。路侧护栏是指设置在公路路肩(或边坡)上的护栏,用于防止失控车辆越出路外。碰撞路边障碍物和其他设施。

(2)中央分隔带护栏。中央分隔带护栏是指设置于道路中间在内的护栏,目的是防止失控车辆穿越中间带闯入对向车道,保护中问在内的构造物和其他设施。

(3)桥梁护栏桥梁护栏是指设置在桥梁上的护栏,目的是防止失控车辆越出桥外,保护行人和非机动车辆。

(4)过渡段护栏。过渡段护栏是指在不同护栏断面结构形式之间平滑连接并进行刚度过渡的结构段。

(5)端部护栏。端部护栏是指在护栏开始端或结束端所设置的专门结构。

(6)防撞垫。防撞垫是通过吸能系统使正面、侧面碰撞的车辆平稳地停住或改变行驶方向,一般设置在互通立交出口三角区、未保护的桥墩、结构支撑柱和护栏端头。

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1. Classification according to the form of guardrail construction

(1) Semi-rigid guardrail. Semi-rigid guardrail is a continuous beam-column structure. It absorbs collision energy by friction between vehicle and guardrail, friction between vehicle and ground, and elastic and plastic deformation of vehicle, soil foundation and guardrail itself (mainly deformation of guardrail system), prolongs the action time of collision process to reduce vehicle speed, and forces out-of-control vehicles to change their driving direction and return to normal driving direction, so as to ensure the safety of passengers. Reduce vehicle damage altogether. Semi-rigid guardrails are mainly located in sections where occupants need to be protected.

(2) Rigid guardrail. Rigid guardrail is a basic non-deformable guardrail structure. For rigid guardrail, it absorbs collision energy by changing wheel rotation angle, body displacement, deformation and friction between vehicle and guardrail, vehicle and ground. In the process of collision, the degree of vehicle deformation depends on its stiffness, collision energy and collision action time. When the collision angle of the vehicle is large, it often causes serious consequences. Rigid guardrails are mainly located in the sections where the vehicles must be strictly prevented from crossing the road so as to avoid secondary accidents.

(3) Flexible guardrail. Flexible fence is a kind of tough fence structure with large cushioning capacity. Cable guardrail is the main representative form of flexible guardrail. It is a structure consisting of several cables with initial tension fixed on the column. It completely relies on the tension stress of the cables to resist the collision of vehicles and absorb energy.

2. Classification by location of guardrail

(1) roadside guardrails. Roadside guardrails refer to the guardrails set on the shoulders (or slopes) of highways to prevent out-of-control vehicles from crossing the road. Collision with roadside obstacles and other facilities.

(2) Central partition with guardrail. Central partition barrier is a kind of barrier which is set in the middle of the road. Its purpose is to prevent out-of-control vehicles from entering the opposite lane through the middle zone and to protect the structures and other facilities.

(3) Bridge guardrail. Bridge guardrail refers to the guardrail installed on the bridge to prevent out-of-control vehicles from crossing the bridge and protect pedestrians and non-motor vehicles.

(4) transitional barrier. Transition section guardrail refers to the structural section which smoothly connects and carries out rigidity transition between different sections of guardrail.

(5) End guardrail. End guardrail refers to the special structure set at the beginning or end of the guardrail.

(6) Anti-collision cushion. Anti-collision cushion is used to stop or change the driving direction of vehicles in front and side collisions through energy absorption system. It is usually set at the exit triangle of interchange, unprotected piers, structural support pillars and guardrail ends.

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